Model T Ford Forum: Forum 2013: Model T Transmission rebuild, The Way We Do It
The Brake drum was shot, so we ordered one from J&M Machine, Oh, what a Beauty, in every way.
I started taking pictures today, and will add more as I progress, as if I wait, it will take a long time to get them all listed.
Pretty ho-hum until I saw your raised bed pressing blocks. Brilliant! I've been lugging around chunks of 3x4x13 solid. I like the idea of face to face channels. I may steal that one.
Ken - On close examination of Mr. Kohnke's beautiful photos, I think they are four angle irons rather than two face-to-face channels,......same idea tho' and as you say,....a great idea!
Nope! I'm wrong,.....they're channels! One is just turned 90 degrees from the other one is all,....my mistake,....sorry,....harold
Herm, The KR Wilson tool is a great thing for NOS drums but the drums that have been turned is a whole different story? I bought one for for the heck of it and I was surprised how accurate it was for a stock drum. I have played with it for turned drums and have found the lathe was a better deal then. What do you use when they are turned down? Thanks.
Joe,I always check the drums with expanding mandrels to see where the out sides are with the center, and that is with out bushings.
The first time I knew the center was right, as I check, and recheck, and found out with the mandrel, that the drum was sprung a little, and that is a waste of time, and bushings.
If the drum is sprung, which isn't too often, but happens, I pitch the drum.
The drums that the out sides were cut, or out of round with the center, they do go in a 4 Jaw, and get the bushing shaft with gear centered and bored to within a .001
Then they go in the Wilson jig and centered on the reamer taper, locked down, and the last .001 is reamed with the hole, and Jig.
The out side band area does not touch, or do you want it to.
I have had I think 3 re-rebuilds that I had to do this way, other wise, its normal.
Then the out side is trued again, and no I don't have to take off a 1/4 inch.
Herm, are those the original reamers? What do you do when they get worn out?
I have almost 3 sets. Two sets were were N.O.S..
So far I have used both sets, and sharpened both sets once when it gets time.
Counting just transmissions, I should have done about 350 to 400.
I don't use them dry, as I use cutting oil on the bushings.
You have to check the reamer under a big Mag. Glass, to see if there is any reflection of light of the edge that cuts. If there is, that's the time to sharpen, or you can ruin the reamer.
When you sharpen a reamer, they only sharpen the taper part, if they have to sharpen the side, they some times can do it once, a very little, or the hole size gets smaller.
While they would still bore straight, you would have to finish with a hone, or a different reamer of some kind.
This is a Jig I made, to align Ream the Tail shaft bushing, as out of Ford Service.
Align Reaming Tail Shaft Bushing, OK Paul?
Triple Gear Reamer, Ken, wake up, Wilson Benches coming. First one is a starter and Gen. table, I have Two.
Showing Reamer Finish.
Parts Ready to Machine
I don't know how much you are taking off the drums, that low drum especially. Low drums are so thin to begin with I think it would be better to polish the existing surface and keep as much metal as you can.
Your attention to detail and your CLEAN work area are an inspiration!
You have more tools than "Harbor Freight"
I enjoy following your work!
Keep up the effort!
Great work Herm, as always!
Love the detailed pictures!
Can hardly wait for the next series..
Thanks Herm. I made a couple of edits mainly to your post at 7:51. You had the comments buried in the picture post, can you check them.
I don't know how much you are taking off the drums, that low drum especially. Low drums are so thin to begin with I think it would be better to polish the existing surface and keep as much metal as you can."END QUOTE
The first one was .018 thousandths.
The second one, .011-50 to .012.
I would have taken more if needed.
To just polish a pitted, wore, and warped drum O.D. is not rebuilding.
High and low spots on drums give bad band surface. It seamed important enough when they were new.
If all it takes is a few missing thousandths to blow a drum, better get a Model A, Right Dan.
I have always turned the drums, and would never put a Transmission together with out it.
I am sorry Ted that your experience with all your thin low drums that you cut the O.D.'s on, blew up on you, that IS from all your experience isn't it?
Thanks Herm. I made a couple of edits mainly to your post at 7:51. You had the comments buried in the picture post, can you check them. "END QUOTE"
Thanks Chris, I was wondering where those Puppies went.
I stand by my opinion.
You show us How it should be done.
Pictures Showing Dial points
Showing center Point that was making the shaft off center, I cleaned it up, and it centered
Hose clamp to hold the fingers back
Centering brake drum in 4 Jaw
Brake drum, Tail Shaft, and also Main shaft now in perfect Alginment
Chris, I don't see any thing to make sure the captions come out?
I for got to say we only put in one of the two Brake Drum bushing, and that is on the Gear end.
Herm, the captions are supposed to show up when you hold the mouse over the picture. It works on Internet Explorer but not on Chrome. I use mostly Chrome, I find it is faster. I don't use the captions field, I would rather put the comments in between the pics so you see them all the time.
Yes, I like that also, Herm.
This should be an article in the Vintage.
Is there a way to save this?
Herm, Why do you use only one bushing on the brake drum??
Nice work on the bushing replacement Herm but no way I would machine those beautiful drums to make them shiny. I didn't see any defects other than perhaps some tiny pits, perhaps those were surface casting defect spots? Those little spots wouldn't affect anything.
Yes, they were rust pitted, and the drums are just about always not true from band wear.
Trueing them makes them round to the center, and a 100% band contact.
To me, with out Trueing the drums would be like putting on New brake shoes, and not true the drums, that makes every thing New again.
The only drum I didn't turn was J&M Machines New brake drum, as it dialed Zero.
Herm, Why do you use only one bushing on the brake drum?? "END QUOTE"
I leave them out because they are not needed. Ford left them out in late 1925, and later.
The only way the oil gets into the Brake Drum bushings is the hole in the Drum shaft, or what can get in the ends of the bushings.
With the inside bushing left out, that whole cavity from the Driven Gear, to the Drive Plate bushing is oiled, and acts as an oil well.
It is also harder to Align 3 bearings, rather than two.
With 2 Bearings you can bore them separate, as long as they are straight with the housings, but with 3 or more, they have to be align Bored, or align reamed.
Herm, do you balance the drums?
How is the balance on the new J&M drum?
Herm, would you mind if we made this into an article and put it in the Vintage Ford?
Herm, do you balance the drums?
How is the balance on the new J&M drum? "END QUOTE"
We have the drums Balanced if the owner wants it.
But we always balance the Flywheel.
We have had only one Balanced from J&M Machine. It was off a little, but so are the Originals, and a lot more. They sure have the Originals beat by far. I don't think you could cast a piece like that and get any kind of balance.
Every thing is balanced from the wheels on out modern car to air craft parts.
Herm, would you mind if we made this into an article and put it in the Vintage Ford? "END QUOTE"
I don't think there is any thing most people would want to look at, but Knock your self out.
Got the Triple Gear pins in the mail today, and have to polish out .000-50 thousandths on the bearing part of the pin.
I will have to take .001 thousandths off the part that press's into the flywheel.
That will leave a .003 thousandths press on the pins, and a .003 clearance on the Gear Bushing.
Polishing Triple Gear Pins to size.
Herm, do you always replace all the bushings or just the worn out ones? I have heard several times that replacing the bushings makes for a noisy transmission but, I would think as long as everything was done right there would be no problem.
Herm, do you always replace all the bushings or just the worn out ones? I have heard several times that replacing the bushings makes for a noisy transmission but, I would think as long as everything was done right there would be no problem."END QUOTE"
I have never taken a Transmission apart, that was good enough to just clean up, and put back together, for my own, or a customer.
The transmissions will run wore out, if not to bad, as will the rest of the motor.
The problem comes in when the bushings wear to much, and then start taking out the gears on a drum, or triple gear that could have been saved.
If the triple gears are left go to long, with .004 thousandths, on up, and as all triple gear pressure is to the outside, the gear will run tipped on the shaft, and the teeth will eat into the flywheel, and ruin the gear surface, and or the flywheel.
As far as the noise, I have never heard one any different then another, outside of the ones that need fixed.
If you have grinding, scraping, knocking, ect., something was over looked.
Many transmissions are left with the old triple gear pins. A typical triple gear pin is .002 thousandths out of round, and it is always on the high pressure side on the gear. So, if you fit the new bushing with .003 to the largest diameter, with wear of .002 at its lowest, now the clearance is .005, and the triple gear has no choice, but to run cocked.
So, when the triple gear runs cocked, it will tear up the teeth on the driven gear, and the drums.
The last thing, when I get time, I will take some Mic readings on my N.O.S. drums and triple gears, as they are factory reamed, and that should put to rest the difference of opinion on what the clearances should be, as these will be Ford factory Spec's.
Great post Herm!
The transmission I am currently running was machined mostly in the same manner as you detail. It was a time consuming process to go through but worth the effort in the end. All bushings were changed and all 3 drums were skimmed on the outside just enough to true the surface for the same reason you stated. I found that it took anywhere from .008 to .018 to achieve a true surface matching the gear or shaft. If more I would have used a different drum. I also balanced the drums and match weighted the triple gears.
I will borrow a couple of your ideas to on my next project.
This is a great post........... Thanks!
What is the title, and who is the author, of the book you have shown in several of your posts? Do you know where I could obtain a copy?
Thanks again, and I always enjoy your posts.
Help your self Charlie.
The book is the Model T Service Manual.
Original copies and used reprints are available through eBay and used book sellers on sites such as Amazon.com or Abebooks.com.
http://www.ebay.com/sch/i.html?_odkw=model+t+ford+service+book&_osacat=0&_from=R 40&_trksid=p2045573.m570.l1313.TR0.TRC0.Xmodel+t+ford+service+manual&_nkw=model+ t+ford+service+manual&_sacat=0
New reprints are readily available from vendors such as Lang's:
Sorry Charlie, I read your post again, and the two pictures that are above are out of the Ford Service Bulletin Essentials.
Any parts house should have them.
Herm and Erik,
Thanks for the information and Erik, thanks for the links. I'm going to order a copy for my library.
The 1.560 is how far back I cut the tail shaft for the Ball cap, no matter if it is ball bearing, or babbitt. This motor will get babbitt.
I will polish out the tail shaft tomorrow, and cut the ball cap.
By the way, that clamp and switch is my automatic shut off switch.
Polished, before polishing
Can still see the lines after the 1500 grit, but can't with the finger nail.
Aligning the ball cap at the only place that comes close to the center every time.
Ruffed out babbitt at high speed, .020 left to go.
If you want something that gets right to the 1/10 of a thousandths every time, these are what will do it. They are call inside Mic's, or also Post Mic's.
Putting in the oil groove.
Made for pressing out the pins, but normally I just take a big hammer and knock them out.
I use a dead blow to tap them in}
I oil the pins. I use a dead blow to tap them in.
I use 1/2 of a Model T wrist pin to push the pin to level.
I use 1/4 inch coarse X 2" bolts and tap the flywheel.
My boy made this to use flywheels on.
It goes up, down, and turns so you can work on the Magnets, or what I am doing.
I hold a big hammer under the bolt to take the stress of the threads when peening.
Small taps, no big hits.
Oil the inside of the gear and shaft
Herm, your pictures are making me excited to get my 26 coupe back together.
A couple of things here.
After you press on the driven gear, it just about always makes the brake drum bushing go smaller, and from the two keys pushing in on the bushing that you should always run the reamer through again to size the hole where it was.
The other thing is the clutch spring pin should be cleaned up so the pin can be placed by hand, instead of having to pound it in.
More Pictures, Band Building
We media blast, "Black Diamond", no dirt, make sure there is nothing caught under the end that is riveted on. clean, clean, clean.
As they come out of the box.
I mark an inch.
I use a metal shears to cut the 1 inch off.
What I use to seal the ends from raveling, way better then what was on them out of the box.
I spray on a slick paper, so it don't soak in so fast, or wax paper.
3 Pieces cut in 1/2.
This is two coats.
K.R. Wilson rivet machine.
Check to make sure bands match drums.
Rivet seated on the inside.
The ends of the bands out further then the band ears, so they don't gouge the drum surface.
Thanks for posting Herm!
This has been a great post! Enjoyed it all so far!
Nice to see the different machine tools and other goodies others like yourself are using!
The pictorial progression is very well presented!
Chris, I don't know what I am doing wrong, but the picture captions are just not coming out?
I just Wonder:
Why do you cut the band lining in half and are you leaving a gap in the middle of the lining? Is this for a better cooling and oiling of the bands??
What is the red stuff you add on the bands at each end??
This real a great writing and should be saved in a manuel.
I read about the band lining method in a Dykes automotive book when I was a kid. It made sense, so I have always done it that way.
It leaves a one inch gap at the bottom for oiling.
With out the stiffness in that missing band area, the band is left to be able to flex more so all the band will contact at all the band, not just some areas.
The bands as they come out of the box do not have enough goop on some ends to keep them from raveling.
There is already a picture of this, but this is red electrical insulation paint which I get at an electric motor shop.
Herm, do you ever install wood linings? Do you see any benefits to cutting them like you do kevelar?
For your answer on my question about the space in the lining.
Next question is the same as Stephen's.
Thanks again for this post on the forum. I rebuild a few transmission but with this post I am learning a lot and find solutions on a few problems I had before.
I don't know anything about wood linings except what is discuss on the forum here.
Impressive attention to detail!
I know Herm sometimes has a way with words....... ha ha .......but when I put Kevlar linings in my '27 Tudor I did it the Kohnke Way........and I'm glad I did!.......
My Model T Ford
breaks her crank.
The rebuild continues.......
Another weekend dedicated to my Model T Ford proved to be interesting on a number of fronts.
Whilst the block is away being rebabbited, we decided to pay some attention to the transmission.
As we began the disassembly, the simplicity of the transmission revealed just how robust the Model T Ford really is.
Our first discovery was that the car, although reported to me when bought, was not in fact fitted with a Jack Rabbit clutch at all. Inside, a standard Model T Ford clutch assembly of steel discs. Some of these were showing blueing where the discs at some stage have become very hot. I was a little suprised and disappointed not to find the Jack Rabbit clutch, but equally impressed at how little trouble the standard clutch had given, even on the coldest mornings.
At the same time, we discovered the clutch drum locking bolt was not only missing any split pin or locking wire, but also barely even finger tight, fortunately another potential disaster avoided.
With the transmission drums lifted off the engine flywheel, the brake drum was inspected and instantly showed a loose rivet as can be seen above. This will have to be repaired before reassembly.After a clean in the spin washer, the transmission drums were then inspected for cracks and I'm pleased to say that none were present.
When we started the engine rebuild, we had already identified that at least one of the transmission triple gear bushes was quite worn. Even so, the transmission always worked well, wth no vibration of undue noises. Inspection of the triple gear revealed in this one shown above, that the bush was barely fitting the gear, easily able to be pushed out by finger.
Next we moved to the Magneto.
Disassembling the Model T Ford Magneto
With the transmission assembly removed, the first step was to grind off the peened over ends of the Magneto clamping screws. These are to be replaced, and, as a matter of course, should always be replaced after a disassembly. Using old screws is false economy should one come loose, the damage can be catastrophic.The brass Magneto screws not only clamp the magneto magnets in place, but also hold the ring gear onto the flywheel as well in cars fitted with starter motors. As my ring gear is badly worn in places, it is also to be replaced. When the screws were removed, the ring simply slipped off the flywheel.
With the magnets removed and cleaned, their polarities were checked and marked.
My magneto had worked well the entire time I have owned the car, so I was quite suprised to see just how weak the magnets were. It was quite fortunate that a friend from our club was in town and had brought his magnetiser with him.After a few "zaps and taps" the performance increase in the magnets was quite amazing, with each now capable of lifting between 7 & 8 pounds of weight, far in excess of the minimum requirement of 2.
With the magnets recharged, they have been stored until the engine rebuild gets underway.
Refitting the new crank
The engine block has been returned from having new babbit poured. With the new counter balanced crankshaft fitted, shims in all the bearings and rods, there should be a considerable improvement in engine balance and longevity.
Whilst the engine was away being rebabbited, the transmission components were put through a heated spin washer to clean them up.This 'pile of bits' will soon be reassembled once new triple gear bushes are fitted and a loose rivet fixed.
So how does it all work? Click here to read and use an interactive Model T Ford Transmission animation
Assembling the Ford Magneto
With the Australian National Model T Rally in recent weeks, progress has been a little slow, but we have some updates to share. With SIX more broken crankshafts as a result of the challenging country toured, it seems many others will be doing similar work to me.
First on the list this session was the reassembly of the magneto. The flywheel was balanced and given some slight machining to even the weight distribution out, then the magnets were sorted, set in place then bolted down.
With the bolts lightly tightened, the magnets sit up to allow the cotton reels to be fitted between the magnet poles and the flywheel. The locking plates were sat on top, then NEW brass magnet screws installed. For such a minimal cost, I just can't see why anyone would risk their magneto once the engine was fitted, by using old screws.
As my car is a 1927 model, it is fitted with a starter. This means that the magnet retaining screws also hold the ring gear for the starter onto the flywheel as well, so when fitting the screws, it is necessary to ensure the threads for the ring gear are aligned as well.
The next step is to check the magnet heights. It is imperative that the magnets all sit at the correct same height, providing between .025 and .040" clearance to the coil or bobbin plate. Bear in mind that the clearance is affected by crankshaft end play.The magnets spin past each of the 16 coils and must have the same clearance to ensure that a strong and even current is induced, providing the ignition power.
This clearance can be time consuming to achieve, but the investment in the KR Wilson Magneto gap tool has proved invaluable to my engine builder.
One of the keys to a smooth running and long lived engine is the balancing of all reciprocating parts. The Model T is challenged by its very design in that it has a huge weight (flywheel and transmission) hanging off one end and an insignificant weight (the fan pulley) on the other.
Here we have balanced the clutch/brake drum assembly and have had to removeda small amount of weight off the casting.
Here you can see the considerable difference between a new counterbalanced crankshaft and the original Ford Model T crankshaft.
Completing valve work
When my Model T engine was broken down, we discovered that it had done a fair bit of work, even though the engine had clearly been 'reconditioned' in recent years.
I already knew that the engine was fitted with better quality Holden valves (Holden is the Australian division of GM)and also knew that at least one was sitting a little low in the block as a result of wear.
What we discovered was around 6 thou of wear in the valve guides. Far too much for comfort, so we decided to sort them out and avoid having to do it later.
The following photos show the step of fitting, cutting and broaching K Lines, the cutting of the block to fit new hardened valve seats and the cutting of those inserts to mate with the valves.Not shown is the step preceeding this work where the original guides are reamed out to take the new K Line inserts.
Hover your mouse pointer over each photo for a description of each step.
Fitting hardened valve seats
With all the valve preparation work complete, we turned our attention to the rods.
Here we have laid out the conrods and are checking the weight of each. This will help us make sure that they are as balanced as much as possible. Unfortunately for us, three of the four rods were within a few grams of each other, not needing any work, but the fourth, the lightest, came in at nearly 2 ounces lighter than all the others. This meant that a fair bit of weight had to be removed from the other three to bring them closer.
With the new year underway, the engine rebuild has progressed well and is almost finished.
Since the last update, the bottom end of the engine has been assembled into the block and the valve gear and magneto assembled onto the block and crank.
Click here to continue reading the final installments of the engine rebuild in 2011
Click here to return to Model T Ford rebuild page 1
- Justin alexander signature
- Northwestern hospital pay scale
- Two rivers property tax records
- Big bird pictures to print
Model T Ford
The Model T transmission is perhaps the least understood parts of the Model T Ford.In all the research I've done, the transmission seems to have the least amount of explanation available, or, well at least not in "lay" terms, simple, for the non mechanically minded.So, here's my effort at explaining just what goes on.
It assumes a basic understanding of mechanical components, so if you don't have this, let me know and I'll see if I can fill in any blanks.I've done the above animated diagram to help those of us that need to visualise things to get an understanding.The first thing to do is understand the different components so that you can make the link between the explanation and the component and its action.Lets start at the flywheel at the back of the engine.
The Flywheel (fig 1, #1) obviously provides the motion that is transferred through the transmission. It provides the transmission shaft mounting(fig 1 #3) (that the rest of the main components rotate on) and three small shafts or pins (fig1 #2), that the triple gears rotate on.
As mentioned, the Triple gears (fig 1 #4) mount on their pins with the flywheel, rotating with it, but also able to rotate on their own pins in either direction at the same time as they rotate with the flywheel. (Picture how the Earth rotates on its axis, as well as rotating around the sun at the same time, hence the term Planetary transmission)The Triple gears are named, not just because there are 3 of them, but also because each one has three different numbers of rings of gear teeth or ratios.
Next in line is the driven gear (fig 1 #5), this is mounted on the transmission shaft against the flywheel, but not "locked" with it, so that it can spin independently of the shaft/flywheel.(its locked to the brake drum, but we'll get to that later)The Driven gear is meshed with the first set of gear teeth on the Triple gears (see fig 3 below), closest to the flywheel. (think of the driven gear as the sun, and the triple gears the planets spinning around it)
Next we have the reverse speed drum and gear (fig 1 #6). The reverse drum gear is fixed, so whatever the gear does, the drum does. This drum slides onto the transmission shaft, and the gear meshes with the triple gear teeth set that are furthest from the flywheel.
Next in-line is the low speed drum and gear (fig 1 #7), this gear also fixed to its drum, protudes further out from the drum than the one on the reverse drum, this is because it passes through the centre of the reverse drum and gear, further than the reverse gear and therefore able to mesh with the second set of teeth on the triple gears. See figure 3 below to see the relationship between each gear. (note, it's not really necessary to understand why they are aligned this way, suffice to say its to ensure the gear ratios work and allow the right motions to occur when required)
Next in the assembly is the brake drum (fig 1 #8). The brake drum also rotates on the transmission shaft, but has no gear teeth. Instead, it has an "extension" that passes through both the low speed drum, and reverse speed drum with a keyway that is used to lock the driven gear to it. This means that whatever the driven gear does, the brake drum does. The brake drum provides a "housing" within which the next component fits, the clutch disc drum (fig 2 #1) and discs (fig 2 #2). ModelT
The clutch assembly provides the physical "break" between the action of the engine and the rear axle, without it, the car would always be moving when the engine was running.The clutch is comprised of two sets of different sized steel discs. The larger set have recesses in their circumference that engage with lugs on the inside of the brake drum, so that these discs do whatever the brake drum does. In between each larger disc is a small disc that engages with the clutch disc drum, these are sandwiched and rely on engine oil to provide lubrication and prevent wear. The clutch disc drum is fixed to the end of the transmission shaft and therefore rotates with it, as do the small clutch discs. The next part of the assembly is the clutch push ring, this as its description suggests, pushes against the clutch discs and it in turn is acted on by the driving plate and clutch fingers.The driving plate (fig 2 #4) provides the physical link between the driveshaft and rear axle. It is bolted to the brake drum and therefore connected to the driven gear. It also comprises the clutch spring (fig 2 #5), the spring providing clamping pressure which is "magnified" by the lever action of the clutch fingers and "sandwiches" the inner and outer clutch discs together when required by passing pressure onto the push ring (fig 2 #3) through holes in the driving plate.Figure 3 shows the entire drum assembly mounted with all the triple gears, driven gear and transmission gears meshed and mounted to the flywheel. Externally, the transmission controls are three floor pedals, one for the low speed drum (and high speed/clutch control), one for the reverse speed drum and one for the brake drum. In addition the emergency brake lever. This provides two actions, it pulls on the rear emergency brakes as well as acting on the clutch spring, either allowing or preventing the spring from acting on the clutch discs.Each floor pedal clamps a transmission band around the outside surface of its respective drum, the action of which is explained next. Before proceeding however, it is important to note that the low/high speed pedal also acts to disengage the clutch spring pressure (as does the handbrake lever) when held in the "neutral position"
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How the transmission works
So lets look at how everything works, remembering these simple rules:
- Each of the Triple Gears does exactly the same as the other
- The driven gear and therefore brake drum always do whatever the car is doing, be the car stationary, going forwards or in reverse.
- The clutch is only used in direct drive (high gear)
- The Triple gears are only used to drive in low gear and reverse.
- The low speed drum and reverse drums spin unless clamped by the pedal bands.
With the engine running and the car standing still the following happens:
The car is stationary, which means the driving plate is stationary because it is permanently fixed to the driveshaft and rear axle.The reason the engine can still run is because the link follows this:
- Driveshaft, driven plate, brake drum, large clutch discs and driven gear are all stationary. (remember the driven gear spins freely on the transmission shaft, so when its still, the shaft spins inside it) because they are all joined together.
- Flywheel, transmission shaft, clutch disc drum, small clutch discs all spin, because either the emergency brake lever or the driver (via the low speed pedal) is holding the clutch spring pressure off the discs, allowing the large to be stationary and the small to spin with the clutch disc drum and small discs.
- All drums can, and to some degree will, spin when the car is in neutral, unless held by the bands when a pedal is depressed
In the following animation, the gears that are attached to the drums are shown only as an example of the number of gear teeth, action and direction of rotation when a gear is selected.
When the driver wishes to move off (forwards), the emergency brake is released halfway (to allow the rear wheels to turn), but still preventing the clutch spring to clamp the discs together. (obviously you can't just "drop" the car into high gear as it would stall the engine - although this is physically possible
The driver pushes and holds the low speed pedal down whilst altering the engine speed to compensate. This clamps the low speed drum and gear still. Because there is a difference in gear teeth between the low speed gear and meshed triple gear teeth, the triple gears turn on their axis at a slower rate than the flywheel and in turn rotate the driven gear in the same direction as the flywheel also at a slower rate.
Because of the difference in gear size between the low speed drum gear and meshed low speed triple gear, the driven gear is forced in the same direction as the flywheel at the same slower rate. Remember the driven gear is locked to the brake drum and therefore turns the brake drum and driven plate (remember its bolted to the drum) and therefore the driveshaft at the same reduced rate.
Click on the handbrake in the animation above, then click on the low speed pedal and see what the gears do."
Click here to return to the animation
When the driver wishes to move in reverse, the emergency brake must be released. The emergency brake is released halfway (to allow the rear wheels to turn), but still preventing the clutch spring clamping the discs together.
The driver pushes and holds the reverse pedal whilst altering the engine speed to suit. This clamps the reverse drum and gear still and forces the driving motion through the meshed triple gear to the driven gear.
In this instance, because the difference in reverse gear teeth and triple gear teeth is 30 teeth on reverse and 24 on the meshed reverse triple gear, the triple gear turns faster (6 extra teeth for each revolution of the flywheel on its own axis.
The triple gear meshed with the driven gear will also do the same and force the driven gear in the opposite direction.
Click on the handbrake in the animation above, then click on the reverse pedal and see the changing gear speeds."
Click here to return to the animation
High Speed Gear
when the driver wishes to engage high gear (direct drive), the emergency brake lever must be released fully forward (whilst the low pedal is either held halfway or fully depressed engaging low gear) so that it no longer prevents the clutch spring from compressing the clutch discs. As the car speed is increased, ready to shift to high gear, the driver momentarily lowers the engine revs and simultaneously releases the low gear pedal (and therefore the last resistance holding the clutch spring back), this allows the clutch spring to apply full pressure to the discs, clamping the small discs between the large discs. Now remember that the small discs are directly fixed to the disc drum and therefore transmission shaft and flywheel, and, the large discs are fixed to the brake drum and therefore driven plate. So the action of clampng the two together, provides a direct link as follows:
- Flywheel to transmission shaft, to clutch disc drum to small clutch discs to large clutch discs to brake drum and driven plate to the driveshaft and rear axle.
Click on the handbrake to put it in the fully forward position and then click on the low/high speed pedal to engage high gear. and see the gears in direct drive.
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When the driver wishes to stop (without stalling the engine), either the emergency brake lever or low speed pedal must be changed, handbrake pulled back or pedal pushed halfway to release the clutch spring pressure off the clutch discs and freeing the direct connection between the engine and rear axle, then (or simultaneously) apply the brake pedal.
This clamps the brake drum and because of the direct connection with the driven plate, slows the vehicle down to a stop.
The brake can be applied to slow the car without altering the handbrake lever, but only to a point before the engine stalls. For the purpose of this explanation, we will disengage the clutch and apply the brake.
Click on the handbrake once to disengage the clutch, then click on the brake pedal and see the action on the driven gear>
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Return to Model T Central Transmission Specifications
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