Pl sql date between

Pl sql date between DEFAULT

Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn how to use the Oracle operator to select rows whose values are in a specified range.

Introduction to Oracle operator

The operator allows you to specify a range to test. When you use the operator to form a search condition for rows returned by a statement, only rows whose values are in the specified range are returned.

The following illustrates the syntax of the operator:

Code language:CSS(css)

In this syntax:

A)  and

The  and specify the lower and upper values of the range to test. The and  values can be literals or expressions.

B)

is the expression to test for in the range defined by and . To be able to compare, the data types of , , and must be the same.

C) operator

The operator acts as a placeholder to separate between and .

The  operator returns true if the value of   is greater than or equal (>=) to and less than or equal to .

Code language:SQL (Structured Query Language)(sql)

The operator negates the result of the  operator.

The operator is often used in the clause of the , , and statement.

Oracle operator examples

Let&#;s look at some examples of using the Oracle operator.

A) Oracle numeric values example

See the following table in the sample database:

products table

The following statement returns products whose standard costs are between and

In this example, we compared the values in the standard cost ( ) column with a range from to The query returned only products whose standard costs are between that range:

Oracle BETWEEN numbers example

To query products whose standard costs are not between and , you add the operator to the above query as follows:

The following illustrates the result:

Oracle NOT BETWEEN example

B) Oracle  dates example

Let&#;s use the table in the sample database for the demonstration:

The following statement returns the orders placed by customers between , and :

Code language:JavaScript(javascript)

Here is the result:

In this tutorial, you have learned how to use the Oracle operator to select rows that are in a specific range.

Sours: https://www.oracletutorial.com/oracle-basics/oracle-between/

Date Types

Most obfuscations involve types. The Oracle database is particularly vulnerable in this respect because it has only one type that always includes a time component as well.

It has become common practice to use the function to remove the time component. In truth, it does not remove the time but instead sets it to midnight because the Oracle database has no pure type. To disregard the time component for a search you can use the function on both sides of the comparison—e.g., to search for yesterday’s sales:

It is a perfectly valid and correct statement but it cannot properly make use of an index on . It is as explained in “Case-Insensitive Search Using or ”; is something entirely different from —functions are black boxes to the database.

There is a rather simple solution for this problem: a function-based index.

But then you must always use in the clause. If you use it inconsistently—sometimes with, sometimes without —then you need two indexes!

The problem also occurs with databases that have a pure date type if you search for a longer period as shown in the following MySQL query:

The query uses a date format that only contains year and month: again, this is an absolutely correct query that has the same problem as before. However the solution from above does not apply to MySQL prior to version , because MySQL didn’t support function-based indexing before that version.

The alternative is to use an explicit range condition. This is a generic solution that works for all databases:

If you have done your homework, you probably recognize the pattern from the exercise about all employees who are 42 years old.

A straight index on is enough to optimize this query. The functions and compute the boundary dates. The calculation can become a little complex because the operator always includes the boundary values. The function must therefore return a time stamp just before the first day of the next quarter if the has a time component. This logic can be hidden in the function.

The following examples show implementations of the functions and for various databases.

DB2
MySQL
Oracle
PostgreSQL
SQL Server

You can use similar auxiliary functions for other periods—most of them will be less complex than the examples above, especially when using greater than or equal to () and less than () conditions instead of the operator. Of course you could calculate the boundary dates in your application if you wish.

Tip

Another common obfuscation is to compare dates as strings as shown in the following PostgreSQL example:

The problem is, again, converting . Such conditions are often created in the belief that you cannot pass different types than numbers and strings to the database. Bind parameters, however, support all data types. That means you can for example use a object as bind parameter. This is yet another benefit of bind parameters.

If you cannot do that, you just have to convert the search term instead of the table column:

This query can use a straight index on . Moreover it converts the input string only once. The previous statement must convert all dates stored in the table before it can compare them against the search term.

Whatever change you make—using a bind parameter or converting the other side of the comparison—you can easily introduce a bug if has a time component. You must use an explicit range condition in that case:

Always consider using an explicit range condition when comparing dates.

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PL/SQL - Date & Time



In this chapter, we will discuss the Date and Time in PL/SQL. There are two classes of date and time related data types in PL/SQL −

  • Datetime data types
  • Interval data types

The Datetime data types are −

  • DATE
  • TIMESTAMP
  • TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE
  • TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE

The Interval data types are −

  • INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH
  • INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND

Field Values for Datetime and Interval Data Types

Both datetime and interval data types consist of fields. The values of these fields determine the value of the data type. The following table lists the fields and their possible values for datetimes and intervals.

Field NameValid Datetime ValuesValid Interval Values
YEAR to (excluding year 0)Any nonzero integer
MONTH01 to 120 to 11
DAY01 to 31 (limited by the values of MONTH and YEAR, according to the rules of the calendar for the locale)Any nonzero integer
HOUR00 to 230 to 23
MINUTE00 to 590 to 59
SECOND

00 to (n), where 9(n) is the precision of time fractional seconds

The 9(n) portion is not applicable for DATE.

0 to (n), where 9(n) is the precision of interval fractional seconds
TIMEZONE_HOUR

to 14 (range accommodates daylight savings time changes)

Not applicable for DATE or TIMESTAMP.

Not applicable
TIMEZONE_MINUTE

00 to 59

Not applicable for DATE or TIMESTAMP.

Not applicable
TIMEZONE_REGIONNot applicable for DATE or TIMESTAMP.Not applicable
TIMEZONE_ABBRNot applicable for DATE or TIMESTAMP.Not applicable

The Datetime Data Types and Functions

Following are the Datetime data types −

DATE

It stores date and time information in both character and number datatypes. It is made of information on century, year, month, date, hour, minute, and second. It is specified as −

TIMESTAMP

It is an extension of the DATE data type. It stores the year, month, and day of the DATE datatype, along with hour, minute, and second values. It is useful for storing precise time values.

TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE

It is a variant of TIMESTAMP that includes a time zone region name or a time zone offset in its value. The time zone offset is the difference (in hours and minutes) between local time and UTC. This data type is useful for collecting and evaluating date information across geographic regions.

TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE

It is another variant of TIMESTAMP that includes a time zone offset in its value.

Following table provides the Datetime functions (where, x has the datetime value) −

S.NoFunction Name & Description
1

ADD_MONTHS(x, y);

Adds y months to x.

2

LAST_DAY(x);

Returns the last day of the month.

3

MONTHS_BETWEEN(x, y);

Returns the number of months between x and y.

4

NEXT_DAY(x, day);

Returns the datetime of the next day after x.

5

NEW_TIME;

Returns the time/day value from a time zone specified by the user.

6

ROUND(x [, unit]);

Rounds x.

7

SYSDATE();

Returns the current datetime.

8

TRUNC(x [, unit]);

Truncates x.

Timestamp functions (where, x has a timestamp value) −

S.NoFunction Name & Description
1

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP();

Returns a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE containing the current session time along with the session time zone.

2

EXTRACT({ YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND } | { TIMEZONE_HOUR | TIMEZONE_MINUTE } | { TIMEZONE_REGION | } TIMEZONE_ABBR ) FROM x)

Extracts and returns a year, month, day, hour, minute, second, or time zone from x.

3

FROM_TZ(x, time_zone);

Converts the TIMESTAMP x and the time zone specified by time_zone to a TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE.

4

LOCALTIMESTAMP();

Returns a TIMESTAMP containing the local time in the session time zone.

5

SYSTIMESTAMP();

Returns a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE containing the current database time along with the database time zone.

6

SYS_EXTRACT_UTC(x);

Converts the TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE x to a TIMESTAMP containing the date and time in UTC.

7

TO_TIMESTAMP(x, [format]);

Converts the string x to a TIMESTAMP.

8

TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ(x, [format]);

Converts the string x to a TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE.

Examples

The following code snippets illustrate the use of the above functions −

Example 1

SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL;

Output

08/31/ PM

Example 2

SELECT TO_CHAR(CURRENT_DATE, 'DD-MM-YYYY HH:MI:SS') FROM DUAL;

Output

Example 3

SELECT ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE, 5) FROM DUAL;

Output

01/31/ PM

Example 4

SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL;

Output

8/31/ PM

The Interval Data Types and Functions

Following are the Interval data types −

  • IINTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH − It stores a period of time using the YEAR and MONTH datetime fields.

  • INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND − It stores a period of time in terms of days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

Interval Functions

S.NoFunction Name & Description
1

NUMTODSINTERVAL(x, interval_unit);

Converts the number x to an INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND.

2

NUMTOYMINTERVAL(x, interval_unit);

Converts the number x to an INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH.

3

TO_DSINTERVAL(x);

Converts the string x to an INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND.

4

TO_YMINTERVAL(x);

Converts the string x to an INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH.

Sours: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/plsql/plsql_date_time.htm
oracle date and time functions

Oracle / PLSQL: BETWEEN Condition

totn Oracle / PLSQL

This Oracle tutorial explains how to use the Oracle BETWEEN condition with syntax and examples.

Description

The Oracle BETWEEN condition is used to retrieve values within a range in a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement.

Syntax

The syntax for the BETWEEN condition in Oracle/PLSQL is:

expression BETWEEN value1 AND value2;

Parameters or Arguments

expression
A column or calculation.
value1 and value2
Two values that create an inclusive range that expression is compared to.

Note

  • The Oracle BETWEEN condition will return the records where expression is within the range of value1 and value2 (inclusive).

Example - With Numeric

Let's look at some Oracle BETWEEN condition examples using numeric values. The following numeric example uses the BETWEEN condition to retrieve values within a numeric range.

For example:

SELECT * FROM customers WHERE customer_id BETWEEN AND ;

This Oracle BETWEEN example would return all rows from the customers table where the customer_id is between and (inclusive). It is equivalent to the following SELECT statement:

SELECT * FROM customers WHERE customer_id >= AND customer_id <= ;

Example - With Date

Next, let's look at how you would use the Oracle BETWEEN condition with Dates. The following date example uses the BETWEEN condition to retrieve values within a date range.

For example:

SELECT * FROM order_details WHERE order_date BETWEEN TO_DATE ('/02/01', 'yyyy/mm/dd') AND TO_DATE ('/02/28', 'yyyy/mm/dd');

This Oracle BETWEEN condition example would return all records from the order_details table where the order_date is between Feb 1, and Feb 28, (inclusive). It would be equivalent to the following SELECT statement:

SELECT * FROM order_details WHERE order_date >= TO_DATE('/02/01', 'yyyy/mm/dd') AND order_date <= TO_DATE('/02/28','yyyy/mm/dd');

Example - Using NOT Operator

The Oracle BETWEEN condition can also be combined with the Oracle NOT operator. Here is an example of how you would combine the BETWEEN condition with the NOT Operator.

For example:

SELECT * FROM customers WHERE customer_id NOT BETWEEN AND ;

This Oracle BETWEEN example would return all rows from the customers table where the customer_id was NOT between and , inclusive. It would be equivalent to the following SELECT statement:

SELECT * FROM customers WHERE customer_id < OR customer_id > ;
Sours: https://www.techonthenet.com/oracle/between.php

Date between sql pl

Yes. Yes. If only I did not roll back.

Working with dates in Oracle PLSQL.

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Similar news:

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