Oracle database engine

Oracle database engine DEFAULT

Oracle Database (Oracle DB)

Techopedia Explains Oracle Database (Oracle DB)

Databases are used to provide structure and organization to data stored electronically in a computer system. Before they were adopted, early computers stored data in flat file structures where information in each file was separated by commas (CSV files). However, as the number of fields and rows that defined the characteristics and structure of each piece of data continued increasing, it was only a matter of time before this approach would become unmanageable.

Relational models for database management represented the ideal solution to this issue by organizing data in entities and attributes that further describe them. Today, Oracle Database represents the RDBMS with the largest market share. Oracle DB rivals Microsoft’s SQL Server in the enterprise database market. There are other database offerings, but most of these command a tiny market share compared to Oracle DB and SQL Server. Fortunately, the structures of Oracle DB and SQL Server are quite similar, which is a benefit when learning database administration.

Oracle DB runs on most major platforms, including Windows, UNIX, Linux and macOS. The Oracle database is supported on multiple operating systems, including IBM AIX, HP-UX, Linux, Microsoft Windows Server, Solaris, SunOS and macOS.

Oracle started supporting open platforms such as GNU/Linux in the late 1990s. Different software versions are available, based on requirements and budget. Oracle DB editions are hierarchically broken down as follows:

  • Enterprise Edition: Offers all features, including superior performance and security, and is the most robust

  • Personal Edition: Nearly the same as the Enterprise Edition, except it does not include the Oracle Real Application Clusters option

  • Standard Edition: Contains base functionality for users that do not require Enterprise Edition’s robust package

  • Express Edition (XE): The lightweight, free and limited Windows and Linux edition

  • Oracle Lite: For mobile devices

A key feature of Oracle is that its architecture is split between the logical and the physical. This structure means that for large-scale distributed computing, also known as grid computing, the data location is irrelevant and transparent to the user, allowing for a more modular physical structure that can be added to and altered without affecting the activity of the database, its data or users.

The sharing of resources in this way allows for very flexible data networks with capacity that can be adjusted up or down to suit demand, without degradation of service. It also allows for a robust system to be devised, as there is no single point at which a failure can bring down the database since the networked schema of the storage resources means that any failure would be local only.

The largest benefit of the Oracle DB is that it is more scalable than SQL, which can make it more cost-efficient in enterprise instances. This means that if an organization requires a large number of databases to store data, they can be configured dynamically and accessed quickly without any periods of downtime.

Other structural features that make Oracle popular include:

  • Efficient memory caching to ensure the optimal performance of very large databases

  • High-performance partitioning to divide larger data tables in multiple pieces

  • The presence of several methods for hot, cold and incremental backups and recoveries, including the powerful Recovery Manager tool (RMAN)


Oracle RDBMS, Oracle

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1 Introduction to the Oracle Database

Grid Computing in Oracle Database 10g

On the path toward this grand vision of grid computing, companies need real solutions to support their incremental moves toward a more flexible and more productive IT architecture. The Oracle Database 10g family of software products implements much of the core grid technology to get companies started. And Oracle delivers this grid computing functionality in the context of holistic enterprise architecture, providing a robust security infrastructure, centralized management, intuitive, powerful development tools, and universal access. Oracle Database 10g includes:

  • Oracle Database 10g

  • Oracle Application Server 10g

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g

  • Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g

Although the grid features of Oracle 10g span all of the products listed above, this discussion will focus on the grid computing capabilities of Oracle Database 10g.

Infrastructure Grid

  • Server Virtualization. Oracle Real Application Clusters 10g (RAC) enable a single database to run across multiple clustered nodes in a grid, pooling the processing resources of several standard machines. Oracle is uniquely flexible in its ability to provision workload across machines because it is the only database technology that does not require data to be partitioned and distributed along with the work. Oracle 10g Release 2 software includes enhancements for balancing connections across RAC instances, based on policies.

  • Storage Virtualization. The Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) feature of Oracle Database 10g provides a virtualization layer between the database and storage so that multiple disks can be treated as a single disk group and disks can be dynamically added or removed while keeping databases online. Existing data will automatically be spread across available disks for performance and utilization optimization. In Oracle 10g Release 2, ASM supports multiple databases, which could be at different software version levels, accessing the same storage pool.

  • Grid Management. Because grid computing pools together multiple servers and disks and allocates them to multiple purposes, it becomes more important that individual resources are largely self-managing and that other management functions are centralized.

    The Grid Control feature of Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g provides a single console to manage multiple systems together as a logical group. Grid Control manages provisioning of nodes in the grid with the appropriate full stack of software and enables configurations and security settings to be maintained centrally for groups of systems.

    Another aspect to grid management is managing user identities in a way that is both highly secure and easy to maintain. Oracle Identity Management 10g includes an LDAP-compliant directory with delegated administration and now, in Release 2, federated identity management so that single sign-on capabilities can be securely shared across security domains. Oracle Identity Management 10g closely adheres to grid principles by utilizing a central point for applications to authenticate users - the single sign-on server - while, behind the scenes, distributing control of identities via delegation and federation to optimize maintainability and overall operation of the system.

Applications Grid

Standard Web Services Support. In addition to the robust web services support in Oracle Application Server 10g, Oracle database 10g can publish and consume web services. DML and DDL operations can be exposed as web services, and functions within the database can make a web service appear as a SQL row source, enabling use of powerful SQL tools to analyze web service data in conjunction with relational and non-relational data.

Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g enhances Oracle's support for service oriented architectures by monitoring and managing web services and any other administrator-defined services, tracking end-to-end performance and performing root cause analysis of problems encountered.

Information Grid

  • Data Provisioning. Information starts with data, which must be provisioned wherever consumers need it. For example, users may be geographically distributed, and fast data access may be more important for these users than access to an identical resource. In these cases, data must be shared between systems, either in bulk or near real time. Oracle's bulk data movement technologies include Transportable Tablespaces and Data Pump.

    For more fine-grained data sharing, the Oracle Streams feature of Oracle Database 10g captures database transaction changes and propagates them, thus keeping two or more database copies in sync as updates are applied. It also unifies traditionally distinct data sharing mechanisms, such as message queuing, replication, events, data warehouse loading, notifications and publish/subscribe, into a single technology.

  • Centralized Data Management. Oracle Database 10g manages all types of structured, semi-structured and unstructured information, representing, maintaining and querying each in its own optimal way while providing common access to all via SQL and XML Query. Along with traditional relational database structures, Oracle natively implements OLAP cubes, standard XML structures, geographic spatial data and unlimited sized file management, thus virtualizing information representation. Combining these information types enables connections between disparate types of information to be made as readily as new connections are made with traditional relational data.

  • Metadata Management. Oracle Warehouse Builder is more than a traditional batch ETL tool for creating warehouses. It enforces rules to achieve data quality, does fuzzy matching to automatically overcome data inconsistency, and uses statistical analysis to infer data profiles. With Oracle 10g Release 2, its metadata management capabilities are extended from scheduled data pulls to handle a transaction-time data push from an Oracle database implementing the Oracle Streams feature.

    Oracle's series of enterprise data hub products (for example, Oracle Customer Data Hub) provide real-time synchronization of operational information sources so that companies can have a single source of truth while retaining separate systems and separate applications, which may include a combination of packaged, legacy and custom applications. In addition to the data cleansing and scheduling mechanisms, Oracle also provides a well-formed schema, established from years of experience building enterprise applications, for certain common types of information, such as customer, financial, and product information.

  • Metadata Inference. Joining the Oracle 10g software family is the new Oracle Enterprise Search product. Oracle Enterprise Search 10g crawls all information sources in the enterprise, whether public or secure, including e-mail servers, document management servers, file systems, web sites, databases and applications, then returns information from all of the most relevant sources for a given search query. This crawl and index process uses a series of heuristics specific to each data source to infer metadata about all enterprise information that is used to return the most relevant results to any query.

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Oracle database engine release notes

Updates to your Amazon RDS for Oracle DB instances keep them current. If you apply updates, you can be confident that your DB instance is running a version of the database software that has been tested by both Oracle and Amazon. We don't support applying one-off patches to individual DB instances.

You can specify any currently supported Oracle Database version when creating a new DB instance. You can specify the major version, such as Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), and any supported minor version for the specified major version. If no version is specified, Amazon RDS defaults to a supported version, typically the most recent version. If a major version is specified but a minor version is not, Amazon RDS defaults to a recent release of the major version that you have specified. To see a list of supported versions and defaults for newly created DB instances, use the AWS CLI command.

Oracle Database 19c (19.0.0) and Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (

For Amazon RDS for Oracle Database 19c (, Oracle Database 18c (, and Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (, Amazon RDS incorporates bug fixes from Oracle by using Release Updates (RUs) and Release Updates Revisions (RURs). We don't support applying one-off patches to individual DB instances.

To find what RUs and RURs are applied to Amazon RDS for Oracle Database 19c (19.0.0), Oracle Database 18c (, and Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (, see the following table.

Oracle versions and

For Amazon RDS for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 ( and Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (, Amazon RDS incorporates bug fixes from Oracle by using their quarterly Database Patch Set Updates (PSUs). If you apply updates, you can be confident that your DB instance is running a version of the database software that has been tested by both Oracle and Amazon. We don't support applying one-off patches to individual DB instances.


RDS for Oracle Database 11g is deprecated. The information in this section is only relevant when you want to upgrade an 11g snapshot.

To find what Oracle Patch Set Updates (PSUs) are applied to Amazon RDS for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 ( and Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (, see the following table.

Introduction to Oracle Database - What is Oracle? full Explanation

Oracle on Amazon RDS

Amazon RDS supports DB instances that run the following versions and editions of Oracle Database:

  • Oracle Database 19c (

  • Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (

  • Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (


RDS for Oracle Database 11g and Oracle Database 18c ( are no longer supported.

Before creating a DB instance, complete the steps in the Setting up for Amazon RDS section of this guide. When you create a DB instance using your master account, the account gets DBA privileges, with some limitations. Use this account for administrative tasks such as creating additional database accounts. You can't use SYS, SYSTEM, or other Oracle-supplied administrative accounts.

You can create the following:

  • DB instances

  • DB snapshots

  • Point-in-time restores

  • Automated backups

  • Manual backups

You can use DB instances running Oracle inside a VPC. You can also add features to your Oracle DB instance by enabling various options. Amazon RDS supports Multi-AZ deployments for Oracle as a high-availability, failover solution.


To deliver a managed service experience, Amazon RDS doesn't provide shell access to DB instances. It also restricts access to certain system procedures and tables that need advanced privileges. You can access your database using standard SQL clients such as Oracle SQL*Plus. However, you can't access the host directly by using Telnet or Secure Shell (SSH).


Database engine oracle

MS SQL server is a database product of Microsoft. It allows users to SQL queries and execute them. It is among the most stable, secure and reliable database solutions. It supports wide variety of transaction processing, analytics, and business intelligence applications in corporate IT environments.

Oracle database is an RDMS system from Oracle Corporation. The software is built around the relational database framework. It allows data objects to be accessed by users using SQL language. Oracle is a completely scalable RDBMS architecture which is widely used all over the world.

Oracle is one of the biggest vendor in the IT market and the shorthand name of its flagship RDBMS product, that was formally called Oracle Database.

In 1987, Microsoft partnered with Sybase Solutions for developing DBMS which may compete with other IT giants like IBM and Oracle. Both these companies agreed that Sybase will have all the selling rights and profit earned from the product designed for the Non-Microsoft platform.

Microsoft, on the other hand, will have rights to the database product designed for Microsoft Platforms. In 1989 the first database server product version was released.

After that, Microsoft purchase all the rights from Sybase and they changed the name to MS SQL Server. Till date, 30 versions of MS SQL, has been released.

Oracle Corporation has a distance long journey to become the multinational technology company that it has at the current time.

In 1977 the Oracle Organisation was founded by two developers, Larry Ellison and Bob Miner. Both had prior experience in developing database software for different organizations.

In the year 1978, they were able to build a first RDBMS using SQL. This software is known as Oracle Relational Database Management System.

Oracle became the first company to sell the RDBMS software and within 1982 had yearly revenue of $2.5 million.

Parameters Ms- SQL Server Oracle Parent Company It is owned by Microsoft Corporation. It is owned by Oracle Corporation. Syntax Simpler and easier syntaxes. Complex and more efficient syntaxes. Download 120 or 180 days evaluation version are available from www. Opensource version can be download from Platform support Can install on Windows server only. But version 2017 onwards can be installed on Linux Run on a wide variety of platforms Language MS-SQL uses transact SQL or T-SQL. PL/SQL or is used by Oracle Corporation. Job scheduling Job Scheduling via the SQL Server Agent Job scheduling via Oracle scheduler or OEM Bit map indexes No bitmap indexes base on reverse keys and functions. Uses bitmap, indexes based on functions, and reverse keys. Query optimization No query optimization. Uses Star query optimization. Triggers Mostly uses “after” triggers. Uses both “after” and “before” Triggers. Support & Trouble Shooting Provides technical notes, bug descriptions, scripts, patches, and download at a not additional charge. Support call which is chargeable for each support case. Roll back Not allowed in the transaction process. Rollback is allowed during the transaction process. Concurrent accesses Concurrent accesses are not allowed when a writer is in progress which increase the wait time. Concurrent accesses are permitted and waits time are generally less. Change of Value Values are changed even before commit. Values do not change before commit. Method Use Row or Page blocking method. It never allows a read while the page is blocked. Use a copy of the record so while modifying it allows reads of original data while doing the modification. Error handling SQL Server executes each command separately, so it will be quite difficult to make changes if any errors are encountered during the process. Oracle treats each new database connection as a new transaction. Human Intervention Follows Global memory allocation so less intrusion of Database admin. Therefore, very few chances of human errors. Follows Dynamic memory allocation. DBA has to interrupt more. So higher chances or human errors. Parallel execution In MS SQL server INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE statements are executed serially. Oracle will execute INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and MERGE statement in parallel. Automation support SQL upgrade advisor is available for automation. Database upgrade assistant available for automation. Redo stream Redo streams are unique to each user and database. One redo stream at the database level. Schemas “Schemas” within each use database. Many “schemas” with the instance. Protection Logins authenticated at the instance level and database level. User authenticated via database credential and OS roles. Sharability Every database has its own, unshared disk file on the server. All the database objects are grouped by schemas. Subset collection of database objects and all the database objects are shared between all schemas and users. Backups It allows full, partial and incremental backups It allows Database, full, file level, incremental & differential backups. Maintenance Tables usually stored Index-organized. Automatically update statistics and identify SQL issue
CPT 1: What is Oracle Database Server? What is Instance? What is Oracle Database?

Oracle Database

Version Initial
Version Initial
Date Terminal
Version Terminal
Date Marquee
Features Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v2 2.3 1979 First commercially available SQL-based RDBMS implementing some basic SQL queries and simple joins[8]Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v3 3.1.3 1983 Concurrency control, data distribution, and scalabilityOld version, no longer maintained: Oracle v4 1984 Multiversion read consistency. First version available for MS-DOS.[9][10]Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v5 5.0.22 (5.1.17) 1985 5.1.22 Support for client/server computing and distributed database systems. First version available for OS/2.[11]Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v6 6.0.17 1988 6.0.37 Row-level locking, scalability, online backup and recovery, PL/SQL. First version available for Novell Netware 386.[12]Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 6.2 6.2.0 Oracle Parallel Server Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle7 7.0.12 June 1992 PL/SQL stored procedures, Triggers, Distributed 2-phase commit, Shared Cursors, Cost Based Optimizer Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 7.1 7.1.0 May 1994 Parallel SQL Execution. First version available for Windows NT.[13]Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 7.2 7.2.0 May 1995 Shared Server, XA Transactions, Transparent Application Failover Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 7.3 7.3.0 February 1996 7.3.4 Object-relational database Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle8 Database 8.0.3 June 1997 8.0.6 Recovery Manager, Partitioning. First version available for Linux.[14]Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle8i Database 1998 August 2000 Native internet protocols and Java, Virtual Private Database Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle9i Database 2001 December 2003 Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), Oracle XML DB Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle9i Database Release 2 2002 April 2007 Advanced Queuing, Data Mining, Streams, Logical Standby Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 10g Release 1 2003 February 2006 Automated Database Management, Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, Grid infrastructure, Oracle ASM, Flashback Database Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 10g Release 2 July 2005[15] April 2010 Real Application Testing, Database Vault, Online Indexing, Advanced Compression, Data Guard Fast-Start Failover, Transparent Data Encryption Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 11g Release 1 September 2007 September 2008 Active Data Guard, Secure Files, ExadataOlder version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 11g Release 2 September 2009[16] August 2013 Edition Based Redefinition, Data Redaction, Hybrid Columnar Compression, Cluster File System, Golden Gate Replication, Database ApplianceOlder version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 12c Release 1 July 2013[17] July 2014 Multitenant architecture, In-Memory Column Store, Native JSON, SQL Pattern Matching, Database Cloud Service Older version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 12c Release 2 September 2016 (cloud)

March 2017 (on-prem)

Native Sharding, Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance, Exadata Cloud Service, Cloud at Customer Older version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 18c 18.1.0 // February 2018 (cloud, Exadata)[18]

July 2018 (other)[19]

Polymorphic Table Functions, Active Directory Integration, Transparent Application Continuity, Approximate Top-N Query Processing, PDB Snapshot Carousel, Online Merging of Partitions and Subpartitions Older version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 19c 19.1.0 // February 2019 (Exadata)[20]

April 2019 (Linux)[21] June 2019 (cloud)

Active Data Guard DML Redirection, Automatic Index Creation, Real-Time Statistics Maintenance, SQL Queries on Object Stores, In-Memory for IoT Data Streams, Hybrid Partitioned Tables, Automatic SQL Plan Management, SQL Quarantine, Zero-Downtime Grid Infrastructure Patching, Finer-Granularity Supplemental Logging, Automated PDB Relocation Current stable version:Oracle Database 21c21.1 December 2020 (cloud)[22]Blockchain Tables, Multilingual Engine - JavaScript Execution in the Database, Binary JSON Data Type, Per-PDB Data Guard Physical Standby (aka Multitenant Data Guard), Per-PDB GoldenGate Change Capture, Self-Managing In-Memory, In-Memory Hybrid Columnar Scan, In-Memory Vector Joins with SIMD, Sharding Advisor Tool, Property Graph Visualization Studio, Automatic Materialized Views, Automatic Zone Maps, SQL Macros, Gradual Password Rollover


Old version

Older version, still maintained

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release


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