Transparent material that is particularly resistant to penetration by projectiles
Bulletproof glass, ballistic glass, transparent armor, or bullet-resistant glass is a strong and optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to penetration by projectiles. Like any other material, it is not completely impenetrable. It is usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. The softer layer makes the glass more elastic, so that it can flex instead of shatter. The index of refraction for both of the glasses used in the bulletproof layers must be almost the same to keep the glass transparent and allow a clear, undistorted view through the glass. Bulletproof glass varies in thickness from 3⁄4 to 3+1⁄2 inches (19 to 89 mm).
Bulletproof glass is used in windows of buildings that require such security, such as jewelry stores and embassies, and of military and private vehicles.
Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using layers of laminated glass. The more layers there are, the more protection the glass offers. When a weight reduction is needed 3mm of polycarbonate (a thermoplastic) is laminated onto the safe side to stop spall. The aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms. Polycarbonate designs usually consist of products such as Armormax, Makroclear, Cyrolon: a soft coating that heals after being scratched (such as elastomeric carbon-based polymers) or a hard coating that prevents scratching (such as silicon-based polymers).
The plastic in laminate designs also provides resistance to impact from physical assault from blunt and sharp objects. The plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance. The glass, which is much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet, and the plastic deforms, with the aim of absorbing the rest of the energy and preventing penetration. The ability of the polycarbonate layer to stop projectiles with varying energy is directly proportional to its thickness, and bulletproof glass of this design may be up to 3.5 inches thick.
Laminated glass layers are built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, polyurethane, Sentryglas, or ethylene-vinyl acetate. When treated with chemical processes, the glass becomes much stronger. This design has been in regular use on combat vehicles since World War II. It is typically thick and is usually extremely heavy.
|Sample thickness and weight for bullet-resistant glass materials|
|Threat Stopped||Glass Laminate||Polycarbonate||Acrylic||Glass-Clad Polycarbonate||Aluminum oxynitride|
|in.||mm||lb/sq. ft.||kg/m2||in.||mm||lb/sq. ft.||kg/m2||in.||mm||lb/sq. ft.||kg/m2||in.||mm||lb/sq. ft.||kg/m2||in.||mm||lb/sq. ft.||kg/m2|
|UL 752 Level 1||9 mm 3 shots||1.185||30.09||15.25||74.46||0.75||19.05||4.6||22.46||1.25||31.75||7.7||37.6||0.818||20.78||8.99||43.9|
|UL 752 Level 2||.357 Magnum 3 shots||1.4||35.56||17.94||87.6||1.03||26.16||6.4||31.25||1.375||34.92||8.5||41.50||1.075||27.3||11.68||57.02|
|UL 752 Level 3 (approximately NIJ IIIA)||.44 Magnum 3 shots (5 shots for NIJ IIIa)||1.59||40.38||20.94||102.24||1.25||31.75||7.7||37.6||1.288||32.71||14.23||69.47|
|UL 752 Level 4||30-06 1 shot||1.338||35.25||14.43||69.47|
|UL 752 Level 5||7.62 mm 1 shot|
|UL 752 Level 6||.357 Magnum underloaded 5 shots|
|UL 752 Level 7||5.56x45 5 shots|
|UL 752 Level 8 (approximately NIJ III)||7.62 mm NATO 5 shots||2.374||60.3||26.01||126.99||18.25|
|UL 752 Level 9||.30-06 M2 AP 1 shot|
|UL 752 Level 10||.50 BMG 1 shot||1.6||40.6||30.76||150.1|
9mm 124gr @1175-1293fps (1400-1530fps for Level 6), 357M 158gr @1250-1375fps, 44M 240gr @1350-1485fps, 30-06 180gr @2540-2794fps, 5.56NATO 55gr @ 3080-3388fps, 7.62NATO 150gr @2750-3025fps for all ratings in the above chart; all copper-jacketed lead FMJ, except 30-06 is semi-wadcutter gas-checked.
Bullet-resistant materials are tested using a gun to fire a projectile from a set distance into the material, in a specific pattern. Levels of protection are based on the ability of the target to stop a specific type of projectile traveling at a specific speed. Experiments suggest that polycarbonate fails at lower velocities with regular shaped projectiles compared to irregular ones (like fragments), meaning that testing with regular shaped projectiles gives a conservative estimate of its resistance. When projectiles do not penetrate, the depth of the dent left by the impact can be measured and related to the projectile’s velocity and thickness of the material. Some researchers have developed mathematical models based on results of this kind of testing to help them design bulletproof glass to resist specific anticipated threats.
Well known standards for categorizing ballistic resistance include the following:
The properties of bullet-resistant glass can be affected by temperature and by exposure to solvents or UV radiation, usually from sunlight. If the polycarbonate layer is below a glass layer, it has some protection from UV radiation due to the glass and bonding layer. Over time the polycarbonate becomes more brittle because it is an amorphous polymer (which is necessary for it to be transparent) that moves toward thermodynamic equilibrium.
An impact on polycarbonate by a projectile at temperatures below −7 °C sometimes creates spall, pieces of polycarbonate that are broken off and become projectiles themselves. Experiments have demonstrated that the size of the spall is related to the thickness of the laminate rather than the size of the projectile. The spall starts in surface flaws caused by bending of the inner, polycarbonate layer and the cracks move “backwards” through to the impact surface. It has been suggested that a second inner layer of polycarbonate may effectively resist penetration by the spall.
In 2005 it was reported that U.S. military researchers were developing a class of transparent armor incorporating aluminum oxynitride (ALON) as the outside "strike plate" layer. Traditional glass/polymer was demonstrated by ALON's manufacturer to require 2.3 times more thickness than ALON's, to guard against a .50 BMG projectile. ALON is much lighter and performs much better than traditional glass/polymer laminates. Aluminum oxynitride "glass" can defeat threats like the .50 caliber armor-piercing rounds using material that is not prohibitively heavy.
Certain types of ceramics can also be used for transparent armor due to their properties of increased density and hardness when compared to traditional glass. These types of synthetic ceramic transparent armors can allow for thinner armor with equivalent stopping power to traditional laminated glass.
Air chamber glass
The newest type of curved transparent vehicle armor has an air chamber between the glass and the polycarbonate. Level IIIA (high speed 9 mm) armor consists 8 mm of laminated glass (strike face), a 1 mm air gap, and 7 mm of polycarbonate. This solution stops the bullets in a totally different way. The glass, being hard, deforms the incoming bullet. The deformed bullet completely penetrates the glass and then it is stopped by the flexible polycarbonate. The weight reduction over traditional glass-clad polycarbonate is 35%, weighing. 25 kilos per square meter for level NIJ 06 IIIA (NIJ 07 HG2). It is also thinner (16.2 mm) vs conventional Glass Clad Polycarbonate (21 mm).
- ^"How Ballistic Glass Is Made". Insulgard Security Products. 2020-07-08. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
- ^Bertino, AJ, Bertino PN, Forensic Science: Fundamentals and Investigations, Cengage Learning, 2008, p. 407
- ^ ab"Bullet Resistant Glass & Laminates: Military Vehicles Humvees Protection". Usarmorllc.com. 2013-12-31. Archived from the original on 2014-05-01. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- ^ abcWalley, S.M.; Field J.E.; Blair, P.W.; Milford, A.J. (March 11, 2003). "The effect of temperature on the impact behaviour of glass/polycarbonate laminates"(pdf-1.17 Mb). International Journal of Impact Engineering. Elsevier Science Ltd. pp. 31–52. doi:10.1016/S0734-743X(03)00046-0. Retrieved September 15, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- ^ ab
- ^Shah, Q. H.
- ^Company specifications from Total Security Solutions and/or Pacific Bulletproof. Retrieved May 9, 2011
- ^Nationwide Structures Inc. "Ballistic Charts". Nationwidestructures.com. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- ^"Surmet's ALON® Transparent Armor 50 Caliber Test". YouTube. 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- ^UL 752 Level 3 Bullet Resistant Fiberglass click on the lower chart
- ^Chandall D, Chrysler J. A numerical analysis of the ballistic performance of a 6.35 mm transparent polycarbonate plate. Defence Research Establishment, Valcartier, Quebec, Canada. DREV-TM-9834, 1998.
- ^Cros PE, Rota L, Cottenot CE, Schirrer R, Fond C. Experimental and numerical analysis of the impact behaviour of polycarbonate and polyurethane liner.J Phys IV, France 10:Pr9-671 – Pr9-676, 2000.
- ^Surmet's ALON® Transparent Armor 50 Caliber Test
- ^Lundin, Laura (October 17, 2005). "Air Force testing new transparent armor". Air Force Research Laboratory Public Affairs. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
- ^"Sapphire gem based transparent armor protects soldiers from snipers". Fox News. October 18, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
- ^Ceramic Transparent Armor May Replace “Bullet-Proof Glass”Archived August 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
Riot Glass Dallas | ArmorPlast Security Panels
Riot Glass products protect the weakest part of your building – the glass doors and windows. ArmorPlast security panels are a Riot Glass product designed to withstand a sustained, repeated assault from determined attackers using sophisticated tools.
The threat is greater. Businesses, offices and government buildings are increasingly coming under attack. Burglaries, break-in’s and “Smash and Grab” crimes are “traditional” threats for businesses. Now owners and managers have to concern themselves with looting, riots and civil unrest.
Traditional glass security products like security window films might not be enough to protect your business from being damaged and looted. This is where Riot Glass can help. Their ArmorPlast security panels provide a higher level of protection against intruders, active shooters and forced entry attempts than even the thickest security window films.
How effective is Riot Glass?
Constructed of clear polycarbonate, these nearly indestructible panels are quick to install, effective immediately and can delay entry for up to 60 minutes.
Recommended for doors and windows with a high likelihood of attack or where a high level of security is needed.
Ideally suited to prevent:
- Forced Entry
- Active Shooters
- Damage from riots and civil unrest
Reasons to consider ArmorPlast Security Panels
- Invisible – Blends seamlessly into your existing window framing
- Nearly indestructible
- Immediate Protection – No curing or “time to dry out”.
- Effective – Delays entry up to 60 minutes
- Does not require removal of existing glass
- Effective against active shooters, smash-n-grab and civil unrest
- Installation by trained, certified installers
- Available in bullet resistant versions
You can learn more about how ArmorPlast can help you protect and secure your business, store or office contact us
Check out our ArmorPlast Video here – Riot Glass Demo Video
| Riot Glass
Riot Glass, a security glass manufacturing company out of California, has the ultimate line of fenestration security products. As the leading manufacturer of retrofit security glass and door systems, Riot Glass is designed to safeguard storefronts or any commercial or residential property that needs reliable fenestration protection.
Riot Glass proudly features their patented flagship product, ArmorPlastTM 25 Access Denial System. A full retrofit product that will surface or recess mount onto existing storefront products to deny entry to any would be intruder. Perfect for schools, hospitals, retail stores, and government buildings of all types with extensive use in correctional and psychiatric facilities. Featuring ArmorplastTM polycarbonate sheets, the ArmorPlastTM 25 Access Denial System includes an abrasion and UV resistant sheet that offers glass-like surface hardness coupled with the impact strength of polycarbonate. Additionally, ArmorPlastTM offers resistance from yellowing and hazing for longer service life in high profile applications such as high end retailers.
- ArmorPlast™ looks like regular glass. Visual acuity can be slightly affected, but overall you won't see a difference. Yellowing is not a concern and is covered by the warranty.
- ArmorPlast™ has a UL 752 Rating. This means ArmorPlast™ products allow bullet penetration, but won't break down or appreciably diminish in strength. In other words, the bullets leave holes, but the panels remain intact and are virtually unbreakable, keeping intruders out of the building. The ultimate smash and grab defense for retail stores.
- Traditional cleaning methods work on all types of security glass. Riot Glass security glass products have a protective outer layer to avoid scratching and marring. Treat security glass the way you would the finish on a fine automobile and you'll enjoy years of trouble-free service.
- AP25 can be mounted to the exterior or interior. Which ever side the product is mounted to, you will want to be sure to remove any graphics or signage before installation.
- AP25 does require self tapping screws to be fasten into your existing storefront framing.
- Maximum Size: 72" x 120" - Larger openings would require reconfiguration of existing storefront glass or false mullions to be added to the project.
ArmorPlast AP25 - Measuring Sheets (Fixed Lite, Door, Transom)
For additional details on how to measure, call 847-741-9595.
For details on how to install, consult your installation guide or call 847-741-9595.
Riot Glass vs LA Rioters
HP White Laboratory Testing - AP25 System
Riot Glass Case Study
ArmorPlast AP 25 Demonstration
Security Glass Basics
Servicing and Delivery Area
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ArmorPlastTM AP25 - Measure Sheet
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CEU Course - Fenestration Security for Educational, Religious, Commercial, and Retail Applications
© 2021 Casco Industries. All rights reserved. Site By: PUREi
Frequently Asked Questions
How Much Does Security Film Cost?
You can expect to pay between $14 to $16 per square foot of glass.
How Much Does Riot Glass Cost
Riot Glass is $25-$34 SQ FT.
How Much is UL Level 1 Ballistic Laminate?
Laminates start at $200 a SQ FT.
Does Window Film Stop Bullets?
Will My Windows Still be Clear?
Yes, unless you choose a privacy product.
What is used to clean security film?
A soft Microfiber towel with mild soap.
Do not use ammonia or other harsh chemicals.
How Long Does It Take To Install?
Window Film 1-4 Days (4 step process) (cure time is 30-60 days)
Riot Glass 1-2 Days
Ballistic Laminates 1-2 Days
Is there a mess or noise when installing?
We keep our mess and noise to a minumum to ensure we do not disrupt daily operation.
Is a License Required to Install?
No professional license is required. Security Film, Riot Glass and Ballistic Laminates are avalable to the public and anyone can buy and install them.
Is there a Warranty?
Yes most of our products come with a 10 year warranty.
Plast glass armor
Quality standards are paramount to Kite Glass. We maintain high levels of in-production inspection to ensure all glass products meet and often exceed European and UK regulatory standards.
Kite Glass bulletproof/bullet resistant glass meets standards as specified under EN1063.
As with all cases of high-security glass, Kite Glass works under strict confidentiality agreements as to the make-up and testing information pertaining to the site specific project.
However, in line with our consultative approach to customer requests, we are always happy to discuss new site-specific projects.
The following are examples of building types and environments where Kite Glass bulletproof glass has been installed:
- Vehicle windows
- Cash desks
- Government buildings
- Military buildings
- VIP residences
Kite Glass’ range of case studies showcase our experience and give some examples of bulletproof glass in action.
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